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The Egyptian Empire – Imperialism!!

There were many different time periods and dynasties of the Egyptian Empire.

Today I  will be talking to you about The New Kingdom and Egypt’s Golden Age these are two sections of Ancient Egypt among many others.

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First of all I will be talking about how the egyptian Pharaohs Kamos and Akmos got Egypt fought and took back Egypt from the Hyksos who had invaded there in 1720-1710 BCE and how they then took Egypt back from the Nubians.

I will then move onto the next topic of the different countries Egypt Imperialised.

First of all in 1560 BCE, Egypt was divided and conquered by the Nubians and the Hyksos. it was on the verge of extinction. the Hyksos King had invaded the north and declared himself as Pharaoh. This was the first time anybody had invaded Egypt. The Hyksos now occupied the Nile eta and shock was spread around Egypt. The Hyksos stayed in Egypt for 150 years.

To the south then the Nubians threatened the last of Egypt’s remnants.map of AE

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Egypt had fallen on hard times.

The king of thieves had two sons: Prince Kamos and Prince Akmos. They wanted to revive Egypt.  Basically Egypt’s fate lay in their hands.

The father of Kamos and Akmos had been killed in battle by The Hyksos. So therefore the sons hate towards them was personal.

The Hyksos were considered foreigners. Therefore the Egyptians considered them as Barbaric and uncivilised.

Kamos really hated the Hyksos. “What power can I claim to have, what I’m stuck between a lazy attic and a Nubian. Each of them has a piece of Egypt too, and shares the land with me. My aim is to liberate Egypt and to crush the Aziatics.”

This is a map of Ancient Egypt when the Hyksos and the Nubians were in Egypt. 

Kamos really wanted to fight the Nubians and the Hyksos out of Egypt. But he needed to rally his people in some way, so they would want to fight them out of Egypt also.

Soon the Hyksos would give them a reason to fight!!!

A messenger from the Hyksos was running through the dessert and he was caught by the Egyptians. He would have been carrying a big scroll wrapped up. Then Egyptians caught him and took the scroll. The scroll read ” Come north, there is no need to worry, Kamos is busy with me here. we will divide the towns of Egypt between us and Nubia will rejoice.

Basically what the King of the Hyksos was saying was: come lets defeat the Egyptians together and after thats done we can split the Egyptian towns between us and you Nubians will rejoice and be happy.

Kamos knew it was time to gather his forces and the next day they he went to war. His brother Ahmos, being only ten years old watched his brother prepare for battle from the sidelines.

“The next day I swooped down on him like a falcon. By breakfast time I had already defeated him.” said Kamos. “I demolished his defences, killed his men. My soldiers were like lions after the kill. As they carried off cattle and slaves, wine, fat and honey. Gleefully dividing the loot.”

That was what kamos said after they defeated the first few villages. Then they moved on up, towards the Hyksos capital ‘Avaris’.

After the first battle, Akmos was confident in VICTORY!!

Egypt was on the verge of expelling The Hyksos out of Egypt. That is when Akmos fatally died. Egypt’s fate now rested on Ahmos, Kamos’ ten year old brother. He now had to win. Not only for himself, but for the whole of Egypt and for his family. This was to be his greatest test.

The only source we have today to what happened during that fateful battle is on one of Ahmos’ soldiers tomb walls. “Let me speak to you and tell you the honours I received, how i was decorated with gold. During the siege of Avaris, the King noticed me fighting bravely on foot and promoted me. We  took Avaris, I carried off four people there, a man and three women and his majesty let me keep them as slaves.” Ahmos returned VICTORIOUS!!

He was now the new Pharaoh of Egypt and he gave his victories to a God.

Ahmen Ray which means the “Hidden one.” The God then spoke to him in the temple of thieves and said… “Oh my son Ahmos, I am the father. I set terror in the Northlands even until Avaris. And the Hyksos are slain beneath thy feet.” Ahmos was then worshipped as a God because of his victory.

For him, defeating the Hyksos wasn’t enough though. He also wanted GOLD! So Ahmos went to Nubia. Nubia had some of the richest gold mines in The Ancient World.

Akmos crushed the nubians in a series of battles. To make sure that no foreigners would invade Egypt again, he pushed the boarders of Egypt into The Sahara Desert.

Then after about twenty five years on the throne Ahmos died.

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Hatshepsut:

During his reign, he transformed the city, building great obelisque’s which towered over Egypt. Weighing over 300 tons and towering 30 meters in the air. They were made out of 1 piece of granite. It was a grand achievement.

Archaeologists knew that the obelisques were made during Hatshepsut’s reign. But his name is missing throughout the names of all official Pharaohs it was a mystery. imgres-12

 In 1903 Howard Carter was working on Tuttenkahmun’s tomb and found a slab of stone with hyrogliphics on it saying Hatshepsut’s name on it. There was a very simple reason that her name had been wiped off all lists an monuments.

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He was a woman.

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Early in her life she was an ordinary queen. But when her husband died her step-son came to the throne. But he was extremely young so she decided to take his place and become Pharaoh. She had seized the opportunity, for power.

Only two other women in history had become Pharaoh and rather unsuccessfully. But Egyptian women were held highly compared to other cultures at the time. The Egyptians though still struggled to accept her on the throne.

What Hatshepsut had done was described as Mart

Mart = something that goes against the way of life.

Hatshepsut was always trying to win the Egyptians over. She stressed that she was the daughter of the king Thutmose. She told the people, he had publicly announced she was to be his successor. This was a false statement she told them to win them over.

She told them before Thutmose had died he had said, “This is my daughter, Hatshepsut. I hereby apoint her in my place. She alone will sit on my majestic throne. Listen to her commands, and work together on whatever she orders.”

But this wasn’t enough so she went further, further to say that, the God Amam took on her fathers appearance, and made love to her mother. Therefore she wasn’t only the daughter of a king but of a God too.

Hatshepsut embraced that she was a woman Pharaoh.

“Her body was covered with the finest incense, her scent was a divine shower. Her skin glittered like the stars. To look at her was more beautiful than anything.”

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But she was a Pharaoh, so she HAD to be male. She had herself portrayed with the male Pharaoh’s beard and kilt.

Hatshepsut had to be careful and choose who to trust in court. One of her favourite courtiers was named Selinmhut.

Selinmhut was her chief architect, so he was the one orchestrating the obelisques for Hatshepsut.

He had started as a commoner but he rose to power.

At the time there were rumors about him and Hatshepsut. Selinmhut was promoted from the army to the royal house hold. Hatshepsut trusted him so much, she let him take care of her own daughter.

He created the obelisques and Hatshepsut’s temple because he was the chief architect.

Hatshepsut’s temple was a gesture to prove herself worthy. Selinmhuts tomb is very close to Hatshepsut’s temple, this could have been a reward to him for being such a good architect or a sign that they were in love.

We don’t think that Hatshepsut would have gotten together with Selinmhut because it would have been too dangerous.

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Hatshepsut and the Army:

Hatshepsut did not trust the army. If they had gone to battle and lost they would have blamed it on Hatshepsut and kicked her off the throne. But on the other hand if they had gone to battle and won they would have said, look we don’t need her here we can win battles on our own.

So Hatshepsut devised a plan. She commanded her army to go to the Land of Punt to trade. No Egyptian had been there in over 500 years.

This kept her step-son busy and promised Egypt riches and Incense.

Incense was important because if you burnt it in a temple it was said that the God would embody themselves in the incense and you weren’t smelling the incense, you were smelling the God’s aroma.

On the 9th year of her reign she launched the Expedition and sent her army West  for the greatest treasure of the ancient world.

It was work for an unemployed army who could say to their grand-children we travelled to Punt under the reign on The Great Hatshepsut.

The expedition was a great success.

“Look they are returning, and they have brought something truly amazing. Trees heave with fresh incense ready to plant, Ebinere, the whitest ivory, baboons, monkeys and dogs, countless leopard skins, even slaves and children. Nothing like his has ever happened to another king of Egypt.”

The expedition had been a huge success. It had made Hatshepsut the Pharaoh who had opened Egypt to a foreign land. Under her reign their was an explosion of wealth, power and vision.

After 22 years on the throne, she died.

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Tutmose’s III

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“At the death of this aunt Tutmose III regained the throne and had the name of the usurper erased from all her monuments. His 34 year reign turned out to be ont of the most splendid periods of Egyptian history.” (Magi and Giambone 6)

But Hatshepsut had stolen the name of Pharaoh from her step-son. And she would pay. Thutmose was 25 years old and ready to claim the throne.

He reconnected himself with the Warrior Pharaoh’s Akmos and Kamos. He would not rein like his step-mother had, he would make sure of that.

He had her obelisques bricked up and her name was carefully wiped off every list of Pharaohs ever to exist. Thutmose’s even had her temple defaced.

All evidence of Hatshepsut’s reign was erased, gone. In Egypt though if you erased somebodys image, it erases their after life also. Defacing Hatshepsut’s monument was like saying ‘No you don’t have eternity.’

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The death of Hatshepsut was a perfect time to test a new Pharaoh.

There was a new coalition of middle eastern princes who had moved into Megiddo and who wanted to take over Egypt.

The Princes might have thought that Thutmose was weak, if so they were very, very wrong. He had waited over 20 years for this moment. He didn’t just intend to push the Princes out of Egypt, but to also take over they’re countries. He was attempting somthing no other Pharaoh had attempted before, to Build an Empire.

This however needed a great military effort. So he needed to increase the size of his army. People were recruited either voluntary or by force. They were armed with weapons, shield etc.

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Finally they moved North across the Squeezing Cyanide Desert. They moved boldly up the Mediterranean coast.

The movements of the Egyptian Army was quite an affair. The leader wanted the moving of the army to have a visual impact. The impact they gave the enemy was important.

At the end of every day Thutmose’s scribes wrote down every single event that had happened.

“4th month of Winter, Day 25. His majesty passed the fortress of Syle on his first victories campaign to crush the people who were assaulting Egypt’s boarders.”

In Egypt the accounts were recorded on the walls of the Carnac Temple. Faces of foreigners bare the names of all of the cities conquered by Thutmose.

Here the word Israel is recorded for the first time in History.

Scribes say what it was like to be a solider in Thutmose’s army 3000 years ago.

“The trees I lay under at night have nothing to eat on them. Sand flies keep biting me and sucking my veins dry. I’m hobbling about like a cripple, because I have to go everywhere on foot. Tell Amoon to bring me back alive from this hell hole where I’ve been abandoned.”

Finally they arrived at Megiddo. Beyond the camp over a mountain was Megiddo.

Thutmose thought that if you captured Megiddo, you had basically captured everywhere.

16th day, 1st Month of Summer 1456 B.C.E 25 year old Thutmose stood on the carmel ridge and faced one of the biggest dilemmas in ancient warfare.

There were 3 paths leading to the city.  2 long routes but they were safe. 1 shorter route but it was dangerous because the men had to walk in single file lines.

Thutmose held a council with his generals. All of the generals said that it would be a very bad idea to go through the dangerous route.

” They said to his majesty, how will it be to go on this road which begins to come narrow? When it is reported that the enemies are waiting there beyond? there are two other roads here, do not make us go on that difficult road.”

The enemies never thought that the Egyptians would attempt to come through the difficult, narrow road. So they waited outside the easier roads for them to arrive.

Meanwhile Thutmose had decided to take a risk and go through the narrow road. The risk payed off.

Megiddo was panicked, the Megiddo army rushed out to take on the Egyptians.

Egyptians forced the Megiddo’s to flee back inside of the city.

The people however weren’t going to open the gates with the Egyptians right there outside the gates. So they let down knotted garments for them to climb up.

Thutmose was on the verge of victory but his plan went wrong.

He wanted his forces to go straight to the city and take it but they stopped and plundered. There was nothing Thutmose could do to stop this.

They cut off all of the hands of the other army and counted them. This was their way of telling how many of the enemy they had killed.

But by doing this they had given the enemy time to get inside of the city walls.

So Thutmose didn’t engage in a battle, he put up a barricade and waited. He intended to starve them out.

Finally after 7 months they surrendered.

The Pharaoh returned in triumph. Megiddo and all of it’s wealth belonged to Egypt. On the walls of the Carnia his scribes described the scale of the treasures they had captured.

“Living Prisoners: 340, Chariots of his wretched army: 892, Cows: 1929, Male and Female slaves with their children: 1796, Walking sticks with Human Heads: 3.”

These things made Thieves one of the greatest cities of the Ancient World.

In a stroke of genius Thutmose also brought back the sons of the Princes to teach them the ways of Egypt. They would grow up in Egyptian schools and be brought up in an Egyptian way. Therefore the Princes would be Semi-Egyptian and when they went back to their own countries to rule they would be full of Egyptian behaviours. To rule their own countries.

In Nubia Thutmose went one step further, he employed a Vice-Roy to rule over Nubia. they called him the ‘Over Seer of the Gold Countries.’

He gave the Pharaoh all the gold needed for him to rule Egypt. He gave the Empire strength.

For all the successes Thutmose pledged thanks to one God.

AMON RAY.

When he got back from Megiddo the first thing that Thutmose did was go into the inner sanctuary alone Thutmose made offerings to the God. According to Thutmose the God spoke to him.

“I gave you valour and victory over all lands, I set your might your fear in every country. But you may lead the living forever.”

By the end of Thutmose’s and the Egyptian Warrior Pharaohs reign Egypt controlled:

Nubia,
The Syrian and Lebanese Coasts,
Parts of Israel
and Palestine.

The Warrior Pharaohs made Egypt an Empire because they took over lands and countries using military force.

But by the end of the Golden Age the Egyptian controlled these countries:

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Thanks for listening/reading my Presentation on The Egyptian Empire.

Works cited: 

BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014.

Chalaby, Abbas. All of Egypt: From Cairo to Abu Simbel and Sinai. Florence, Italy: Bonechi, 1996. Print.

“Egypt’s Golden Empire : The Warrior Pharaohs 1/8.” YouTube. YouTube, 13 Aug. 2008. Web. 15 Mar. 2014.

“Hyksos.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 15 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Mar. 2014.

“One Account. All of Google.” Google Drive. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2014.

“The Hyksos Invasion.” The Hyksos Invasion. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2014.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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