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Welcome to my Website :)

Hi there,

I’m Rachael, I’m a TCK (third culture kid), in 10th grade and I’m making my way through the IB! This website is composed of projects that I have been assigned, and completed. I hope I can help answer any questions you have about certain topics! If you have additional questions, comment and I’ll do my best to reply!

Enjoy :)

The Cane Toad or The Rhinella Marina.

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Common Name, Aliases and Scientific Name:

The rhinella marina, more commonly know as the cane toad, the gland, neo-tropical toad or the marina toad, is part of the true toad family, which is a species of toad, in which all members are known as toads. According to the dictionary.com neo-tropical literally means “belonging or pertaining to a geographical division comprising that part of the New World extending from the tropic of Cancer southward,” therefore the neo-tropical toad literally means a toad that lives somewhere from the tropic of Cancer and Southwards. The toad lives in South America and Australia, which are both South of the tropic of cancer. Therefore the toad is literally a neo-trophical toad. 

Origin of Invasive Species and Date and Place of Introduction:  

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The rhinella marina is native to Central and South America, but have been introduced to countries across Oceania and Australia. The toads were introduced to Australia in 1935, to help control cane beetle population. Roughly 3000 cane toads were released into sugar cane fields. There are now millions of cane toads, which thrive and live all over Northern Australia. The rhinella marina have spread all over Northern Australia, as they have few natural predators in Australia because they have few natural predators there. The rhinella marina live for up to 10 years, and reproduce at an incredibly fast rate. The female’s breed twice a year and can lay 8,000 – 35,000 eggs at a time, the eggs are laid in either stagnant or running water, with a water salinity of  up to 15%. Though only 0.5% of the eggs reach maturity, it takes 6-18 months for the toads to reach sexually maturity. Therefore, the toads have a high reproduction rate, few natural predators, and eat most things, including pet food left outside, allowing them to invade and travel quickly across large areas of land.

Negative Impacts on the Environment: 

The rhinella marina are very invasive and they exclude and reduce many numbers of different species. They are incredibly poisonous, therefore anything the tries to eat them normally are poisoned. The toads eat most things, therefore they reduce the amount of prey available for ot
her predators. They have really decreased the amount of honey bees there are in Australia, as they prey on them a lot. They competitively exclude other types of frog/toad and take over their niches by using resources and reproducing very quickly. The fact that only some birds, river rats, snakes, and centipedes prey one cane toads means that the toads population is not decreasing naturally, it’s just growing and growing.

#1
The toads have had many negative effects on the environment. Such as; killing many species, with the poison from the paratiod glands of their backs, due to this, they reduce their populations immensely. They have no natural predators in Australia and they have an abundance of food therefore they thrive. The toads will eat anything they can, their diet usually consists of; ants, crickets, honeybees, living insects and beetles. They have has a large effect on the adult goannas. 90% of the population were killed in the first year of the toads arrival, according to Dr. Greg Brown. The adult goannas eat small mammals and insects. Thus, due to the decrease in their population, their prey, (insects, beetles, small mammals and birds), begin to thrive. If the population of certain insects increase, such as the sugar cane beetles, then the sugar cane crops will suffer and then the farmers produce and income will suffer. Thus one can see that there are many knock on effects when just one animals population decreases. Therefore they reduce many species populations, as they have few natural predators, their population never decreases, meaning that other species cannot to increase again, cause their populations to decrease.

#2
The cane toads eats many different types of insects. This may indirectly affect plants also, as if the insects that pollinate plants, are all consumed, this means the plants will suffer. Therefore the cane toad causes a knock on effect. If the toads eat insects that pollenate plants, their population decreases, and thus the plants do not get pollenated and their populations are indirectly affected. 

#3
The Northern quoll is a native Australian cat like animal. 30-40% of them were previously found in North east Top end, in the norther territory of Cape York Peninsula and the Eninaleigh Uplands of Northern Queensland. In the past 10 years, nearly all of the northern quoll population has diminished. This is due to the rhinella marina preying, and poisoning them.

Northern Quell Distribution Map:                                                                             Cane Toad Distribution Map:

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Figure 1

Through looking at the maps above, one can see that where the rhinella marina have invaded, and their population has increased, the northern quell population has decreased. This is because the cane toad is an invasive species and instead of their population looking like this: (See Figure 1)

Their population is exponential and continues growing even when their prey’s population decreases, as they prey on almost anything, not just the northern quell. Therefore the northern quell is unable to increase it’s population again. 

 

Therefore, one can see that the Rhinella marina has had many negative effects on the environment and the biodiversity of Australia.

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Due to the lack of natural predators, the abundance of food and fast rate of reproduction the toads have now made it as far as Sydney.   

 

 

 

 

Physical Features:

The large amphibious cane toad has yellow/brownish dry, rough, warty skin. They have a bony  head. Around their eyes they have boney ridges that meet at their nose. They have four legs, their hind legs are webbed and their front legs are not.The toads can grow Screen Shot 2015-09-19 at 15.15.06up to 10-15 cm long and live for up to 10 years in the wild (5). The adult toads have large parotoid glands, behind their ear drums, (parotid means “behind the ear”), which emit poison (4, 6). The poison is known as bufotoxin and is squirted out of the gland when the toad comes into a dangerous situation. The toad builds up pressure behind the valve, which keeps the gland closed, and pushes the valve open, causing the poison to quirt out. The poison that is emitted from the large parotoid glands affects the breathing, blood pressure and beating pattern of the heart. This can result in paralysis, vomiting and salivation. (6,7)

Mating and the Rhinella Marina’s Niche: 

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 When mating the male toad will make a low-pitched-slow-trill noise to attract females. The adult toads are predators but the tadpoles are omnivorous.  The tadpoles are aquatic and therefore swim. The adult toads hop/jump around on land and in the water and sit up straight. (5,6,7).

 

The rhinella marina are mostly active at night, yet could potentially be active at any time of day.The adult rhinella marina are very territorial and will fight any other animal who tries to invade their territory.

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The toads normally migrate during wet season, as they need wet areas to live, and with the rain, there are an abundance of wet pockets and places to stay the night. During the dry season, the toads normally stay and live around creeks or pockets of water where there is water, and can live. A rhinella marina’s niche is normally located near or on a water source with shade, with tropical/sub-tropical humid, temperatures, where they can lay eggs and breed. Yet the toads are mostly nomadic and move around, especially during the wet season (8).

Control Methods #1 and #2: 

Many Australian citizens manually remove the toads, they use toad traps, and in some cases just go out into their back gardens at night and pick them up, and terminate them. Due to the lack of predators that the toads have, and their ability to reproduce very quickly, the few toad that you picked up last night, will be replaced by the next night. Therefore this technique does not work very well. It would work is the toad were able to reproduce, as then when one collected and exterminated toads, there would be one less toad out there. At the moment, there are many different companies, working on chemical suppressants, such as Team Bufo, to stop the toads from breeding. (8) Therefore, the main way the cane toads are being kept under control, is by Australian citizens collecting and exterminating the cane toads, and many companies are working on chemical suppressants to stop the toads from breeding. The rhinella marina’s population increase looks like this: 

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One can see, that even though the Australian people are using many different techniques, in order to stop the population increase and speed of the toad’s invasion, it is not working, as the toads population continues to increase, fast. 

 

 

 

Works Cited:

“Cane Toads, Cane Toad Pictures, Cane Toad Facts – National Geographic.”National Geographic. National Geographic, n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/amphibians/cane-toad/>. (5)

Paul. “Garden Guests: February 2009.” Garden Guests: February 2009. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2015.<http://gardenguests.blogspot.com.tr/2009_02_01_archive.html>.

Map of Cane Toads. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://lh4.ggpht.com/_evSTIFye5zM/SY_2DHzksdI/AAAAAAAAAfU/m2r-D-4wa1A/canetoaddist09.gif>. (9)

“Rhinella Marina | Mindo | Tropical Herping.” Rhinella Marina | Mindo | Tropical Herping. Tropical Herping, n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://www.tropicalherping.com/publications/books/mindo/rhinella-marina.html>. (1)

“Avian Fact Sheet.” Cane Toad Facts Sheet. (2004): n. pag. Pest Tales. Web. 20 Sept. 2015.<http://www.pestales.org.au/activities/CaneToad_factsheet.pdf>. (2)

“Australian Government. “The Biological Effects, including Lethal Toxic Ingestion, Caused by Cane Toads (Bufo Marinus).” The Biological Effects, including Lethal Toxic Ingestion, Caused by Cane Toads (Bufo Marinus). Australian Government – Department of Environment., 12 Apr. 2005. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <https://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/key-threatening-processes/biological-effects-cane-toads>. (3)

“Cameron, Elizabeth. “Australian Museum.” Cane Toad –. Australian Museum, 1 Dec. 2014. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://australianmuseum.net.au/cane-toad>. (4)

“The Most-Traveled Cane Toad.” Web Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2009/gutierre_marc/poison.htm>. (6)

“Cane Toad: The Animal Files.” Cane Toad: The Animal Files. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2015.<http://www.theanimalfiles.com/amphibians/toads/cane_toad.html>. (7)

“Current Methods to Cane Toad Control.” Current Methods to Cane Toad Control. SBI, n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://www.canetoadsinoz.com/cane-toad-control.html>. (8)

“Towie, Narelle. “Cane Toad Poison Banned.” Perth Now. Sunday Times., 23 May 2009. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://www.perthnow.com.au/news/cane-toad-poison-banned/story-e6frg12c-1225715177178>. (10)

“Cane Toad.” Cane Toad. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://kids.nationalgeographic.com/animals/cane-toad/>. (11)

“Cane Toads Are Killing Crocodiles in Australia.” Mongabay Environmental News. N.p., 30 July 2008. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://news.mongabay.com/2008/07/cane-toads-are-killing-crocodiles-in-australia/>. (12)

“Agriculture .” Cane Toad. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2015. <http://agriculture.vic.gov.au/agriculture/pests-diseases-and-weeds/pest-animals/a-z-of-pest-animals/cane-toad>. (13)

Une Lettre Officielle.

Rachael Pye
Alkent 22
54288
Istanbul
Turquie
Monsieur Directeur D’Asure
L’école International
D’Istanbul
54216
Istanbul
Turquie
Le vingt neuf Avril, deux mille quinze

Monsieur Directeur D’Asure,
Je m’appelle Rachael Pye. Je suis une élève d’IICS. Je vous écris environ la nourriture à l’école. Les élèves au IICS ils ne sont pas heureux avec la nourriture à l’école. Alors j’amerais vous dire des recomendations.

Priemierment,au école, la nourriture c’est ennuyeux parce que c;est un petit choix de nourriture chaque jour. Nour aimerons pouvoir choisir la nourriture differént car quand la nourriture c;est mal et ennuyeux jour après jour. Alors je recommende, que tu créer plus d’option.

Mais l’année deirnier, la nourriture c’estait très mal, alors maintenant, la nourriture c’est mieux mais il n’est pas plus bon.

J’aime la nourriture souvent, mais souvent c;est très horrible. Aussi des persons d’Asure c;est malheureaux toujours et ils ne parlons pas Anglais. Alors nous ne pourrais pas dire quoi nous voudrions.

Alors j’ai beaucoup de recommendations beaucoup le menu.

Des bonbons
Des frites
Des fruite frais
Du sushi
Des oranges avec du nutella
Et le petit dejuner.

Où je recommende un compétition pour une menu de la catine. Des élèves écrievent une menu pour la cafeteria, et puis votre companie choisissent votre favori menu.

Je n;aime pas nourriture d’école alors chanfer la nourriture et le menu!! Nous aimerait la nourriture asiatique, European etc. parce que nous sommes une école internationl.

S’il vous plais écouter de les suggestion s’il vous plait, parce que nous n’aimons pas le nourriture en ce moment, c’est un petit peut horrible.

Je vous prie d’agréer Moniseur Directeur d’Asure l’expression des mes sentiments distingues.

Cordialement,

Rachael Pye.

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Réflection Unité 2

Réfection fur chaque évaluation.

Qu’est – ce que tu as bien fait?
Qu’est – ce que tu pouvais améliore?

Critère A : – Comprehending spoken and visual text
I listened and understood mostly everything from the video
I understood most of the questions, but as the people in the video were talking so quickly, it was hard to understand and answer the questions.
In order to improve, next time i will slow down and listen to the video more closely and I will try to understand the answers to the questions better.

Critère B : Comprehending written and visual text :
I understood the questions, I just and a problem when I went to reply. I made lots of silly mistakes and this is something I need to fix. To improve for next time, I will do some extra exercises which madame Chotard will give me and this will help me bring up my grade. I will also make sure that I know my vocabulary 100% and hopefully, next time we have a test, I will improve a lot.

Critère C : – comprehending written and visual text
I understood the stimulus, and I understood what we needed to write about. Yet when i went to write it, i found that the topic I had chosen was good but i didn’t go into enough detail so it was hard for the reader to understand what i was talking about in places. So in future I need to go into further detail to demonstrate my understanding of the topic.

Critère D : using language in spoken and written form.

When I was responding to the email, I chose a good topic, but I did not go into enough detail when responding. In future I need to find a topic which I have a good amount of vabulary to use for, and I need to go into more detail when discuassing it.

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Renaissance V.S Middle Ages Art!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Renaissance VS Medieval Art:

 

I. For the Medieval painting:
1. Post a picture of the Medieval painting.

DUCCIO1S

2. Who painted this painting?

Duccio di Buoninsegna. He was an Italian medieval artist. He was born in 1255 and he died in 1319.

3. Where was the artist from?

Duccio di Buonisegna was from Sienna, in Tuscany in Italy.

This is a map of Sienna.

This is the only place that he worked and lived.

4. What did the artist use to paint this painting?

To paint this painting, Duccio used egg tempera and a wooden panel. Painters at this time normally used egg tempera because it was easy to make. Egg tempera is an egg-based paint that you make using an eggs yolk, water and a dry, ground pigment. He normally painted about different religious matters as we can see above.

5. What is this painting about?

This is a painting of the Madonna with the infant of Jesus. It is a religious painting, as most paintings were back then. Most paintings were religious back then because the people believed that their lives were like a door to heaven, so they believed that they had to live their lives in the name of God.

6. Please describe what you see in the painting (are there figures in the painting? What do they look like? What are the colours like? What is the background like?)

We can see, in the painting above, there is very little perspective and or proportions. If we look at the baby for example, the baby looks quite like an old man. The babies’ head is out of proportion in relation to its body. Look at the babies’ body. It is very long and thin, but then look at the babies head and one can see how small its head it.

If we now look at the colours in the painting we can see that the artist has used a blue for the Madonna’s shawl. The blue colour would have been made out of lupus lazuli. This is a rock that is found mainly in Afghanistan. This rock would have been extremely expensive because of the transportation it would have taken to get the rock to Italy at the time. One can see the different values in this painting. There are some very dark shadows and some very sharp and bright light colours.

In this painting there are two figures. They are the Madonna and the infant of Jesus. This is a religious painting like most others at the time.

II. For the Renaissance painting:
7. Post a picture of the Renaissance painting.

ANON1

8. Who painted this painting?

Raphael Sanzio, a famous Italian renaissance painter, painted this painting. Raphael was born in 1483 and died in 1520. He painted many works in his life time and he died at the young age of 37.
9. Where was the artist from?

Raphael was born in Urbino, Italy.

This is a map of urbino, Italy today:

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He was born in Urbino, but he lived there and in Rome.

10. What did the artist use to paint this painting?

Raphael used oil paints on a canvas to paint this painting. Oil paints are paints with an oil base and a canvas is a piece of stretched fabric over a wooden frame.

11. What is this painting about?

This painting is of the Madonna holding the infant of Jesus again. It is also a religious painting. There are two figures in the painting, and in comparison to the painting from the middle ages, which we saw before; this painting is a lot better.

12. Please describe what you see in the painting (are there figures in the painting? What do they look like? What are the colours like? What is the background like?)

There are two figures in the painting; the lady is the Madonna and the baby is Jesus as an infant. In comparison to the picture from the middle ages, we can see that this painting has a lot more perspective and it looks a lot more real than the other painting did. This is due to value and different painting techniques that the renaissance painters developed. The value scale, is a scale going from the white to black:

Fig_64

This is an example of a value scale. The painters in the renaissance used different shades of value a lot more because it made different parts of their paintings stand out an it gave the painting a look of 3D.

The different colours in this painting are very bright. We can see the red that the             Madonna is wearing portrays love for the baby Jesus.

In the background we can see the skyline and different houses and trees. This shows perspective. Perspective is when an artist can make something look like it is far away from you in a painting. This is a technique that was developed in the renaissance period.

III. Compare and contrast both paintings:

13. How are these paintings similar?

These two paintings are similar because they are both about the same subjects. We can see the Madonna with the baby Jesus in her arms. We can see the colours are similar also because the Madonna has a blue cloak in renaissance painting and in the painting from the middle ages.

14. How are these paintings different?

These paintings are painted in two very different ways. If we look at the painting from the renaissance period of time, we can see that it is painted in a completely different style to the middle ages painting because in the renaissance painting we can see that there is a lot more perspective. We can see in the background there are green hills that look like they are far away from us, and we can see in the painting from the middle ages, it looks like the Madonna is flat.

Value gives a look of roundness in a painting and we can see here that in comparison to the Renaissance painting, the middle ages painting uses a lot less value. We can also look at the different proportions. Look at the baby in Duccio’s painting and then look at the baby in Raphael’s painting:

DUCCIO1SANON1

We can see that the body of the baby in Raphael’s painting proportionately fits the babies’ body. In Duccio’s painting we can see that the babies head is a lot smaller than it should be. This makes the baby in Duccio’s painting look older or unreal.

15. How does the use of value affect the difference or similarity between these two paintings?

Value is an art element. It is when you use all of the shades from white to black in a painting.

Fig_64

This is a value scale.

Without value a painting looks like it is flat. Value was not used nearly as much in the middle ages as it was in the renaissance. We can see the value used in the renaissance painting quite well because if we look at the baby, we can see the different folds of skin and the really detailed shadows.

If we look at the baby in Duccio’s painting, we can see fewer shadows and different proportions.

16. How do the artists’ understanding of proportion and anatomy affect the difference or similarity between these two paintings?

One can see that the babies from each of the different paintings are very different. If we look at the proportions of the baby in Duccio’s painting, we can see that the babies’ head is very small in relation to its body, and if we then look at the proportions of the baby in Raphael’s painting, we can see that the babies’ head is the correct size in relation to its body.

Painters at the time of the renaissance, went to grave yards and dug up bodies to cut them up and see what they were like inside. They wanted to see the proportions of the body.

IV. On Renaissance art in general:

17. What do you think, based on what you know about the Renaissance and the ideals of the time, were Renaissance artists trying to accomplish in their artwork?

I think, based on what I know about the renaissance, that renaissance artists were trying to portray a range of different things in their paintings, but I think that most of all they were portraying religion. I think they painted about religion because they felt it was an important topic, and they felt that if they painted about it, they were more likely to get into heaven.

18. What did Renaissance artists do or learn in order to accomplish their goals?

Renaissance artists had to become an apprentice before they could become an artist. An apprentice was where you stayed with a famous artist, and they showed you different techniques, different ways of painting. After you had completed you apprenticeship, you had to get into a Gaul, this was a group of artists and you had to create a piece of artwork for them and they would accept you into the Gaul or reject you. Until you got into a Gaul, you weren’t considered a full artist.

Once they were complete artists, and they began painting, they would acquire patrons who were like sponsors. The patrons would get the painter jobs painting their family, or churches etc.

19. How did the use of value and the understanding of proportion and anatomy in the Renaissance change art?

Value, proportion and anatomy changed art in the renaissance, because these three elements make paintings/drawings look a lot more real. In comparison to art from the middle ages, renaissance art had a lot more value and proportion in them. This was due to the renaissance artists examining dead bodies and seeing how the body works. I think that value made everything look realistic and more round, this is an element they didn’t use in the middle ages.

20. How have you personally developed your understanding of valueproportion, and anatomy lately?

I have improved my understanding of value, proportion and anatomy lately by completing a series of assignments, for my patron “Madame Zaza”!

For example, I have drawn an exotic fish using value and this made my fish come to life! I feel that I now know to measure different parts of my drawings/paintings to make sure they are similar and proportionate in relation to each other.

I also think that watching different videos in class about Leonardo da Vinci and the drawings on the board of the human face have also helped me quit a bit when looking and proportion and anatomy.

21. How have you improved as an artist?

I have improved as an artist because I now actually know what value is. Before my patron “Madame Zaza” stepped in, I didn’t know what value was. I think that now that I know what value is, I am a much better artist because now my paintings look much more real than they did before and they look more three dimensional.

Before “Madame Zaza” stepped in I hadn’t though to measure things with my pencil, to make sure different element in my drawings/paintings were proportionally correct in relation to each other.

Over all I think I have improved drastically as an artist and I hope to keep doing so with the help of my patron.

Works Cited:

“AAM—The Renaissance Connection: Lesson Plans: Tempera versus Oil Paint.”AAM—The Renaissance Connection: Lesson Plans: Tempera versus Oil Paint. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 June 2014. <http://www.renaissanceconnection.org/lesson_art_oil.html>.

Bondone, Giotto, Di. Madonna and Child. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 9 June 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giotto>.

Nevit. Value Scales Pencil. Digital image. Wikimedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 2007. Web. 12 June 2014. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Value_Scales_Pencil_10183.jpg>.

“Google Maps.” Google Maps. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 June 2014. <https://www.google.com/maps/preview>.

“Raphael – Oil Painting Reproductions – Page 1505.” Raphael – Oil Painting Reproductions – Page 1505. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 June 2014. <http://www.1st-art-gallery.com/Raphael/Madonna-%2526-Child-%28the-Small-Cowper-Madonna%29-1505.html>.

Hooker, Richard. “The Visual Arts of the Italian Renaissance.” The Visual Arts of the Italian Renaissance. Richard Hooker, n.d. Web. 12 June 2014. <http://richard-hooker.com/sites/worldcultures/REN/VISUAL.HTM>.

“Raphael.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 06 Nov. 2014. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raphael>.

“Renaissance Art.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 06 June 2014. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance_art>.

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Things Fall Apart Essay:

Things Fall Apart Essay

By Rachael Pye

8th Grade

In the novel Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, the impacts of imperialism on the Igbo people from an Igbo’s point of view are explained. We can see the impact of imperialism through the evolution of the story which can be summarized as follows: Okonkwo, (the protagonist) is a very strict man; he does not want to seem weak. Okonkwo’s father was a weak man. Okonkwo hated his father and wanted to be nothing like him, this is why Okonkwo was strict and did not display love for anybody. In the novel, Okonkwo wants to become the most powerful man in Umuofia, (the village that the story is set in), but he accidentally kills a man at a celebration whilst he was shooting his gun, and is exiled for seven years. When he returns, the British have arrived in Umuofia and he has to start again, by building himself up, and taking back his former status.

In the novel, “Things Fall Apart” by Chinua Achebe, many different events occur, which display evidence that the British and the Igbo people were savage. It is the purpose of the essay to illustrate that the natives and the British were equally savage.

It can be seen, that the native men treated their wives and children poorly and the natives left twins in the “Evil Forest” to die when they were first born, these are two examples of the natives being savage. Two examples of the British being savage in the novel are; one, how they came into foreign lands and took the land from the native people, and two, when the British arrived in a place they imposed their culture in on the people. In this essay we will look further at the topic of savageness, beginning with the natives.

In the novel, “Things Fall Apart” Okonkwo, can be seen as a savage man. Okonkwo treats his wives and children very poorly because in the 1800’s, women had no rights, and it was part of the Igbo culture for the man “to rule his household with a heavy hand,”(Achebe 13). Okonkwo was a man who lived in fear of failure and weakness, and this is why he was such an imposing and unkind man. It was also part of the Igbo culture at the time for the man to be the leader of the house. This could also be one of the reasons, that Okonkwo was such an imposing and forbidding man. Okonkwo treated everybody, including his children, with contempt.

“So when he called Ikemefuna to fetch his gun, the wife who had just been beaten murmured something about guns that never shot. Unfortunately for her, Okonkwo heard it and ran madly into his room for the loaded gun, ran out again and aimed at her she clambered over the dwarf wall of the barn. He pressed the trigger and there was a loud report accompanied by the wail of his wives and children,”(Achebe 39).

Here, we can see that Okonkwo was a rash man, who did not think about things before he acted. This leads to him being a savage man. This is one example of the natives being savage.

            When you look at the natives’ traditions, you can see that the Igbo thought twins were evil. When twins were first born, they were taken to the “Evil Forest” to starve to death and die. This is another act of savageness. The native people left twins to die because they thought they were evil.

“But each time she had borne twins, and they had immediately thrown away.”… “It was true they were rescuing twins from the bush, but they never brought them into the village. As far as the villagers were concerned, the twins still remained where they had been thrown away,” (Achebe 151,154).

Throwing twins away is a savage act because newborn babies can not fend for themselves or feed themselves, and babies will surely die if nobody takes care of them. Throwing newborn twins away is an act of “a brutal or vicious person,” (Oxford Dictionary). Above we can see two examples of the Native people acting savagely. It is also important that we look at savagery from the imperialist perspective.

            The British people came into Umuofia and, took the land from the Igbo people. The British people thought that it was reasonable for them to come into the African peoples land and take it for themselves. The reason that the white people needed to take the land was because of the industrial revolution. During the industrial revolution, the British invented new technology and new machinery. They therefore needed more resources to create the new machinery, and to fuel the machinery, and technology. So they went to Africa, took the resources that were there, and they also took the land that the people had because of the different resources there.

“European rule led in time to the development in resources and raw materials for trade”…

“After a long uneasy truce between the Dutch and the British, tensions arose after the discovery of gold and diamonds in the late 1800’s. From 1899 to 1902 the Dutch and the British fought the Boer war for control of the region and its rich resources,” (Age of Imperialism 83). 

The British invading Africa is a savage act because the people there had their own way of life and, when the British arrived, they took everything away from the native African people. Therefore, it is shown that the British were savage and the British thought it was alright for them to go into different people’s homeland and take it from them. In colonizing different countries the British also imposed their own cultural values on the natives.

The British people thought that it was reasonable to impose their culture on the Igbo people because they thought that as Christians, they had the “White Mans Burden”. The white mans burden was a poem by Rudyard Kipling explaining that Christian people believed that it was their duty to go around and convert people to Christianity. They therefore, believed it was the right thing to do to invade the African people and impose their culture, language and religion on the people.

“There are no other gods,’ said Mr. Brown, (English missionary). “Chukwu is the only go and all others are false. You carve a piece of wood – like that one’ (he pointed at the rafters from which Akunna’s carved Ikenga hung), ‘and you call it a god. But it is a piece of wood,” (Achebe 179).

Here, Mr. Brown, who is a white missionary in “Things Fall Apart” is talking to Akunna, who is one of the greatest men in Umuofia. Mr. Brown is telling Akunna that his Gods are not real. Only Chukwu, (who is equivalent to the Christian God), is a real god. Mr. Brown, is therefore trying to convert and impose Christianity on Akunna. Imposing your culture on somebody else and telling the people that what they believe in is untrue, is an act of savageness as we can see above.

            From the different examples shown above, it is shown that both the natives and the British were both savage in different but equal ways. Finally, it can be seen that the native men treated their wives and children poorly and the native’s left twins in the “Evil Forest” to die when they were first born, these are two examples of the native’s being savage. Two examples of the British being savage in the novel are; one, how they came into foreign lands and took the land from the native people, and, when the British arrived in a place they imposed their culture in on the people and therefore the natives and the British were equally savage.

Works Cited page:

Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor, 1994. Print.

 

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We (Re) Built This City – Part 2, The Rebuild!

 

 

 

 

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Periodic Table.

In this periodic table of monsters:
The arms = protons
The mouths = electrons
The tongues = energy levels
The eyes = neutrons
The fangs = valence electrons

PLEASE IGNORE THE COLOURS THEY DON’T APPLY I LABLED IT WRONG.
The elements 3,11,19 are in the group: alkali metals
4, 12 is an alkali earth metals.
13 is an poor metal.
6 is an non metal.
5, 14, 7, 15, 8,16, 9, 17 semi metal
2, 10, 18 are noble gasses.

In the third energy level you can actually have up to 18 electrons. This therefore means that you take the element and you put two electrons on the first shell and then you put the eight on the second shell. For the elements before 21 you then could only have eight electrons in the third shell and then two on the outside. But once you go above 20 you take the electrons, you put two in the first shell, then 8 in the second shell. Draw the third shell for now but leave it empty and then you add the two on the fourth shell. Then you go back in and fill the rest of the electrons in on the third shell. This is called backfilling.

Explanatory paragraph:

So in the actual periodic table, in say the third element which is my third monster there are 3 protons which are the amount of mouths I have (3), 3 electrons which are the amount of arms I have (3), the atomic mass is 6 which are the amount of legs (6) I have. The tongues are the amount of energy levels. I have 3 tongues and this is the amount of energy levels there are in the third element. The eyes are the amount of neutrons I have and in the third element I have 3 eyes for the three neutrons, I then also have fangs and the fangs represent the amount of valence electrons. I have 3 fangs on the third monster and that is the amount of valence electrons in the third element.

Photo on 5-22-14 at 7.18 PM #2

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We (Re) Built This City! – Part 1.

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TFA – STLD Reflection.

How did providing a guiding discussion question affect your group’s discussion? Did it help you focus and have a greater discussion, or was it too prescriptive and limited?

The guiding question did help whilst we were completing the group student lead discussion because it gave us a point to begin from. Normally, when we start a student lead discussion nobody really knows what to say, or how to begin the discussion. I think that this time around, the guiding question really helped the discussion get going. 

Yet the only thing is, because we had a guiding question, the whole discussion seemed to revolve around it and we never really moved on to another topic. I think if the guiding question had been a little bit more vague, then we may have been able to change the topic or been able to get into deeper discussion about a specific thing. But because we had a question we all felt we had to answer, this didn’t really happen. 

I think that the guiding question mostly affected our discussion positively though. I felt this way because,w e were allowed to move onto different topics, but the thing is our question was a very good question and there was a lot to talk about. Even at the end of our hour long discussion, it had still felt like we hadn’t finished talking about the question. I really thought that our discussion was good and relevant and I feel like we had a deep, interesting and informing discussion.

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Student-led Discussion Prep Questions:

1. Question: Compare and contrast Mr. Brown and Mr. Smith. What do these characters represent? Why do their names represent, or how are they a reflection of the men to whom they belong?

Answer:

Mr. Brown was a white missionary, who took the time to understand and figure out the Igbo ways and religion. He was clever because he didn’t walk straight into the clan and try to take possession of everything, he began setting up schools and churches everywhere and tried to convert the people to Christianity.

Mr. Smith was another white missionary who replaced Mr. Brown when he started getting sick and had to go back to England to be treated. Unlike Mr. Brown, he was rude and didn’t take the time to understand the people. He therefore insulted them and consequently the red church was burnt down by the egwugwu. 

The names Mr. Brown and Mr. Smith, are typical english names. Their names represent that they are most definitely English.

Mr. Smith didn’t understand the Igbo customs as Mr. Brown had. He represented the English as men who are reckless and don’t even have an interest in the Igbo’s religion and or customs. Mr. Brown was a man who understood the Igbo’s customs, and therefore understood the people and he was able to get along with the people. Therefore Mr. Brown reflects the English in a much more positive way then Mr. Smith does.

2. Question: The missionaries in the novel play an important part.  What is it that they are trying to do?  Are they a force for good, or evil?  Do they want to help the Igbo, or hurt them?  What do their actions end up doing?  

Answer: 

The missionaries in the novel are trying to imperialise and convert the Igbo people into Christians.

They can be a force for good and evil. Good:  because they are taking in the people who are outcasts of society and are allowing them to become part of the church. The women of society would be treated better by the English if you converted into Christians and brought English customs to the Igbo. Evil: because they are basically walking into the Igbo people’s land and taking it from them. They eventually take their; Language and culture away from the people.

I think that in the end the missionaries end up hurting the people because they take away their culture and language and basically force Christianity upon them. The British tell them that their Gods aren’t real and they are silly to follow them. They then begin to take the Igbo people back as slaves to Britain and this eventually hurts the Igbo people.

Supporting Quotation:  “These outcasts, or osu , seeing that the new religion welcomed twins and such abominations, thought that it was possible that they also would be received. And so one Sunday they too went into the church. ” … “Unless you shave off the mark of you heathen belief I will not admit you to the church.” … ” There are no other gods.’ said Mr. Brown ‘Chukwu is the nly God and all others are false. “

3. Question: The missionaries and Christians set up schools for the people of Umuofia to attend.  What were the good parts and bad parts about attending one of those schools.  Would you want to attend?

Answer: The good parts about the missionaries and Christians setting up school for the Igbo people were: the Igbo people were educated about different things like reading and writing (in English). They would have also been educated about religion (Christianity) and British customs. 

The bad things about attending one of the British schools would have bee that you would have only learnt  about British customs and ways, you wouldn’t learn anything about your own culture and language and you were probably taught in English too.

In my opinion I wouldn’t like to attend the school because the missionaries would be teaching me about things that don’t apply to me and had pretty much no meaning what so ever.

Supporting Quotation: “And so he built a school and a little hospital in Umuofia. He went from family to family begging people to send their children to his school. But at first they only sent their slavs or their lazy children. Mr. Brown begged and argued and prophesied. He said that the leaders of the land in the future would be men and women who had learned to read an write.” 

4. Question: Who is the District Commissioner? Why is he sent by the English, and what does he do? What do you think he represents in this novel?

Answer: The district commissioner is the Queens messenger, who appoints other people to help him with the work which the queen has told him to do. 

The English Queen sends him to do their work because that is his job. He basically

I think that in this novel the district commissioner, represents the smaller gods that the Igbo people look up to and make sacrifices to.  So I think that a District Commissioner is like a real equivalent to the small gods because he is sent by the overall master in England : the Queen, and in the Igbo religion the over lord is Chukwu. But the Igbo people have many other smaller Gods who are like the District commissioners in England.

Supporting Quotation:  

“Your queen sends her messenger, the District Commissioner. He finds that he cannot do the work alone and so he appoints kotma to help him. It is the same with God, or Chukwu. He appoints the smaller gods to help Him because His work is too great for one person.”

5. Question: Why does Okonkwo kill the court messenger?  What is he trying to accomplish?  Is he successful in his final goal?  How are his actions a representation of the larger struggle of native people against imperialism?  

Answer: Okonkwo kills the court messenger because he realised he was the man who had whipped him previously when he was in jail. He also killed him because he was so angry at the white man and his followers, the people who had joined them, and he killed him because he wanted Umuofia to go to war. 

He was trying to rally the people into going to war. He failed in this because once he had killed the white mans messenger, the people became shocked and they went into a frenzy.

He was not successful in his final goal because he did not get Umuofia to go to war. The people didn’t rally and take action like they used to, the people went into turmoil.

His actions represent the larger struggle of native people against imperialism because: the people would have felt frustrated because the british had superior force and weaponry to them so however hard they tried they were going to loose against the british. Okonkwo didn’t like change. He had come back after seven years in Mbanta and he wanted to continue on from where he had left off. But in seven years A LOT had CHANGED. Like Okonkwo, the people would have been unwilling to change: their culture, language and customs to the British way. I think that in the past if Okonkwo had killed that messenger, it would have rallied the people to go to war. But when he did kill the messenger, the people were shocked and there was a frenzy. He then knew things had changed and he didn’t like it.

Supporting Quotation: “He knew that Umuofia would not go to war. He knew because they had let the other messengers escape. They had broken into tumult instead of action. He discerned fright that tumult. He heard voices asking: ‘Why did he do it?’ he wiped his machete on the sand and went away.” 

7. Question: What are the consequences of the murder Okonkwo commits?

Answer: The consequences of the murder Okonkwo commits is Okonkwo ends up killing himself. 

He also does this because he finds it so hard to change, and he feels that all of his customs and the norm, is leaving and he can feel his whole life slipping away from his grasp. Things just fell apart.  

Supporting Quotation: “Then they came to the tree from which Okonkwo’s body was dangling, and they stopped dead.” 

8. Question: How do you interpret Okonkwo’s suicide? Why did he do it?  Does this represent anything larger in terms of European imperialism?

Answer:

My interpretation of Okonkwo’s suicide is that, his life was changing and he didn’t like it. Everything was going wrong for him and he didn’t like that either. When he returned from Mbanta he wanted to start again from where he left off and pick up the pieces. But that wasn’t going to happen for him because the white man had arrived.

Okonkwo killed himself because he hated the change and the fact that the white man was slowly but slowly taking what they knew away from them and was slowly putting his ideas and customs into their heads.

This shows us that the Europeans imperialism was not exactly a good thing. In a way they slowly drove people crazy until they couldn’t handle it anymore. They slowly sunk their claws into peoples cultures and slowly took that away and introduced theirs.

Supporting Quotation: “What moved Obierika to visit Okonkwo was the sudden appearance of the latter’s son, Nwoye, among the missionaries in Umuofia.” This is one example of change in Okonkwo’s life. 

 

 

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